Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 飞利浦/欧司朗出售照明业务 中国买家最有竞争力.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
If audiences didn’t yet know the film was set in the early 1980s, one look at Anna’s straight bangs confirms it. The rest of her shoulder-length hair forms a slight curved frame around her face. It’s a simple look, but a powerful one for this woman, whose husband, Abel (Oscar Isaac), runs a heating oil business, but whose past is a little more complicated.
Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
Please accept my season\'s greetings.
May your New Year be filled with special moment, warmth, peace and happiness, the joy of covered ones near, and wishing you all the joys of Christmas and a year of happiness.
Yes. Supply outages and geopolitical risk factors will probably persist, alongside output curbs by global producers. But whether prices can maintain levels at $70 or above is dependent on the willingness of Russia to keep backing a Saudi Arabia-led effort to cut production in the face of growing US shale supply. Other participants in the co-ordinated effort also need to sustain strong compliance with the deal, the incentive of which declines as governments reap the rewards of higher prices.
Employment growth exceeded projections.
The 60-episode TV drama was adapted from a novel Legend of Princess Pearl published in 2007. It focuses on the protagonist Shen Zhenzhu’s romance with her husband and their efforts to protect the country.
Wishing you all the blessings of a beautiful New Year season.愿你拥有新年所有美好的祝福。
The study is available online.